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by Hubert Zawadzki,Jerzy Lukowski
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    Hubert Zawadzki,Jerzy Lukowski
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    Cambridge University Press; 2 edition (July 24, 2006)
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    408 pages
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In just under three hundred pages, the authors portray a Poland whose history is constantly being negotiated.

In just under three hundred pages, the authors portray a Poland whose history is constantly being negotiated. Padraic Kenney, University of Colorado, The Journal of Modern History.

A Concise History of Poland. and. HUBERT ZAWADZKI. 25 Portrait of Poland’s greatest Romantic and poet, Adam Mickiewicz (1798-185 5). Courtesy of the Muzeum Narodowe, Warsaw. Photograph, H. Romanowski. Cambridge university press. Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, Sao Paulo. Cambridge University Press The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 2RU, UK. Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York. 26 The battle of Grochow, fought on 25 February 1831.

Jydrzejewicz, W. Pilsudskį: a life for Poland, New York: Hippocrene Books, 1982. Kaminski, B. The collapse of state socialism: the case of Poland, Princeton, . University Press, 1991 Karski, J. Story of a secret state, London: Hodder and Stoughton, T945 Karski, J. The Great Powers and Poland 1919-194 7: from Versailles to Yalta, Lanham, M. University Press of America, 1985 Kaser, М. C. and Radice, E. (ed.

Jerzy Lukowski is Senior Lecturer in Modern History, School of Historical Studies, at the University of Birmingham, UK. He is also the author of, The Partitions of Poland (Addison Wesley, 1998), and Liberty's Folly (Routledge. He is also the author of, The Partitions of Poland (Addison Wesley, 1998), and Liberty's Folly (Routledge, 1991), and many journal articles. Poland only sporadically makes the headlines of the Anglo-Saxon world, and its history remains comparatively unknown. It has suffered the dubious distinction of being wiped off the political map in 1795, to be resurrected after the First World War, to suffer seeming annihilation during the Second World War, reduction to satellite status of the Soviet Union after 1945, only to emerge during the 1980s.

Poland's history has been marked by its resilience ISBN 10: 0521618576. Series: Cambridge Concise Histories. File: PDF, 2. 0 MB. Читать онлайн.

Poland's history has been marked by its resilience. Once a dominant force in central and eastern Europe and home to a remarkable experiment in consensual politics, it was excised from the map by its neighbours in 1795. Resurrected in 1918, partitioned afresh during the Second World War, it survived to become a satellite of the Soviet Union. With its updated bibliography and new chronology, the book is the ideal companion for all looking for a comprehensive survey of this fascinating country. Год: 2006 ISBN 10: 0521618576.

Jerzy (George) Tadeusz Lukowski (or Łukowski) is a Polish-British historian at University of Birmingham. He specializes in studies of the 18th century Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Selected publications. Liberty's Folly: The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the Eighteenth Century, 1697-1795, Routledge, 1991, ISBN 0-415-03228-8. The Partitions of Poland 1772, 1793, 1795, Longman Publishing Group, 1999, ISBN 0-582-29275-1. Jerzy Lukowski, Hubert Zawadzki. Poland is a tenacious survivor-state: it was wiped off the map in 1795, resurrected after the First World War, apparently annihilated again in the Second World War, and reduced to satellite status of the Soviet Union after 1945. Yet it emerged in the vanguard of resistance to the USSR in the 1980s, albeit as a much more homogeneous entity than it had been in its multi-ethnic past. This book outlines Poland's turbulent and complex history, from its medieval Christian origins to the reassertion of that Christian and European heritage after forty-five years of communism.

A concise history of Poland, Jerzy Lukowski and Hubert Zawadzki. p. cm. ± (Cambridge concise histories). Includes bibliographical references and index. isbn 0 521 55109 9 (hardback) ± isbn 0 521 55917 0 (paperback).

Jerzy Lukowski, Hubert Zawadzki. Poland's history has been marked by its resilience. Once a dominant force in central and eastern Europe and home to a remarkable experiment in consensual politics, it was excised from the map by its neighbours in 1795

Concise history of poland. Concise history of poland.

Concise history of poland. Cambridge univ press. inlibrary; printdisabled; ; ctlibrary; china; americana.

The second edition of this guide to Poland has been updated to take account of the years from 1989-2005. This period marked its liberation from the Soviet Union, the birth of Poland's 'Third Republic' and, recently, its accession to the European Union in 2004. Poland's history has been marked by its resilience. Once a dominant force in central and eastern Europe and home to a remarkable experiment in consensual politics, it was excised from the map by its neighbours in 1795. Resurrected in 1918, partitioned afresh during the Second World War, it survived to become a satellite of the Soviet Union. Yet in the 1980s, it was Poland which blazed the trail in casting off communism, and was finally able to reassert its Christian heritage. With its updated bibliography and new chronology, the book is the ideal companion for all looking for a comprehensive survey of this fascinating country.

Here is a concise history of a small country with a complex history. It seems to me the authors have done their job well, despite its inherent difficulties. My interest in this book cames from curiosity about the partitions of Poland, by which the country was divided among its neighbors during the years 1772-1795 without any major war. Although I found the narrative difficult, I obtained an explanation which I augmented on my own. The book feels disorganized in places. But it is still easier to understand than the first edition.

For all of its history, Poland has been surrounded by often hostile neighbors: Germany to the West and Russia to the East, and others less hostile North and South. Therefore, protection against conquest was the most important issue. The first definitely known ruler, Mieszko I, recognized the suzerainty of the Germans during most of his reign of 960 to 992. Probably he accepted Christianity as a way to hold possible German aggression at bay by obtaining approval from the Pope and admitting Christian clergy to his country, for Germany at least was officially Christian. At a time when much of Europe was forest and and swamp, inhabited only by pagan tribes and wild animals, Christianity meant access to civilization with its technology and orderly legal structure.

Germans were continually moving from the West to settle in the Polish region since it had so much new cultivable land. There was continual movement of Germans to the East, where new cultivable lands were. Likewise Poles would move even further East. The acquisition and defense of landholdings was often a violent affair. The more stalwart came to have larger domains. The combining of small holdings into larger and larger tracts led to some chiefs having power over large areas, which led to the problem of holding a territory together.

At this time there was no real Polish nation but only a patchwork of tribal areas with the chieftain presumed to be king and his closest associates as the nobility, who were highly suspicious of royal claimants. (The first three claimants to royalty were hacked up alive.) The great event of the Polish Middle Ages was the combination of Poland and Lithuania. Casimir III (The Great) of Poland had numerous daughters but no son. He needed a son to constitute his family’s strongest claim. He died a few days after willing his territory and kingship to Louis of Hungary (of the famous Anjou family). But Louis had the same problem of daughters but no son. Louis managed to get daughter Jadwiga married to Jogaila (more often known as Jagiello), an illiterate heathen who happened to be Grand Duke of Lithuania, its neighbor to the east. He converted to Catholicism and annexed his kingdom to Poland, creating in 1386 the largest country in Europe at the time. But the fact of marriage did not combine laws and institutions.

The authors comment that because of Jogaila’s conversion, Lithuania became a Christian state, so conflict with other Christian states was less likely. But after the arrival of the Protestant reformation, commonality of faiths did not guarantee a secure defense. Poland and Lithuania would have to merge rather than remain a double monarchy. Sigismund II felt that only a new Union on terms acceptable to both the Crown and Grand Duchy would give his nobles a real stake in the survival of a reconstructed polity. When the last objections were overcome, the Treaty of Lublin created a unified state 1n 1562.

The rise of Russia provided another good reason for a completely unified nation. Russia threw off Mongol domination in 1380 and began an expansion for hundreds of years in all directions of the compass. By this time religion was a crucial factor in national unity, but it was not enough simply to be Christian. Poland was mainly Catholic, with some Protestants and Jews, while Russia was now Orthodox. (The Polish king Casimir III understood the usefulness of the Jews in expanding economic life, encouraging them to come in from other areas of Europe even though among the people the faiths did not coexist well.) Lithuania had to serve in a geo-strategic sense as a buffer against an expansionist Russia.

The military defense problem would not have been so serious if Polish government and society were socially more unified. The monarchy was elective; the electorate was the noble (szlachta) class, all members of whom were supposed to be to at least some extent landowners. Their rights came to be spelled out in a charter of “Golden Liberties”, which were mostly acts of their assembly, the Sejm. They enjoyed a monopoly of state offices. Tax increases could not be imposed without their consent. A noble’s peasants were subject to his personal jurisdiction and a peasant’s right to leave his village was limited. Compulsory military service could not be imposed on them without their general consent. They had the right to mint money. They were the only people who could serve in the Sejm. Their debates in the Sejm were at risk of the liberum veto, which meant that one member could could cancel discussion on a topic and the significance of everything said on it at will, so that many sessions were wasted. Naturally the szlachta did not like paying taxes. Armed with the liberum veto, they could keep taxation minimal, even though their country was involved in endless off-and-on wars. Soldiers mutinied for lack of pay. Poland produced at least one glorious military commander, John III Sobieski who in 1683 relieved the siege of Vienna by the Ottomans, but the authors comment: “Sobieski was always in a position of weakness ... [politically].” There was no charter of rights for burghers or peasants.

The years from the Treaty of Lublin to the Partition of 1772, 1793, and 1795 were a period of almost continual wars. As well as greed for territory, religious differences were a cause.The distinguishing mark of most of these wars is the foolishness of Poland’s behavior (although neighboring countries are equally foolish.) It is necessary only to cite one example. The Great Northern War of 1700-1721 was the result of an agreement with Russia to despoil Sweden. A Polish invasion of Livonia (then under Swedish control) was countered by a Swedish invasion of Poland successful enough to temporarily take Warsaw and Cracow. In response the wealthiest members of the szlachta dethroned Augustus II and by purchasing votes in the Sejm elected a puppet-king, Standislaw Leszczynski. Sweden was defeated in 1709, but Poland gained nothing.

The final incident before partition was a conspiracy of Catherine of Russia with Poland’s Stanislas Poniatowsky, who happened to be her lover. She nursed ambitious plans to push back the Ottomans and gain influence in the Holy Roman Empire, which meant some control over Poland. She made common cause with the Protestants in Poland, who were more important in government than their low status would suggest. Her manipulations of the Sejm set off a rebellion in Poland and caused the Ottomans to declare war on Russia and provoked aggressive behavior from France, Austria, and Turkey. At this point Frederick the Great of Prussia feared a general European conflagration. The authors comment that his warnings of a bloodbath were “disinformation of the highest order --neither Austria nor France was in any condition to fight a major war.” Frederick advised her to obtain compensation for past Polish behavior. His way to make the seizure “fair” was to propose slices of territory for Austria and Russia as well. Under the partition governments many of the old abuses were corrected, but the partition remained until World War I when the responsible governments were overthrown or defeated.

Partition seems to me the most significant aspect of Poland's history now that the Nazis and Communists are out of power. It explains why Poland joined the European Union but keeps its distance.
It must be remembered that Lukowski and Zawadzki have written a concise history. For a more detailed hisory of Poland in the English language one would need to read the two volumes of 'God's Playground' written by Norman Davies. For a more depictive, rather than deeply analytical history of Poland, Adam Zamoyski's 'The Polish Way' makes for an engrossing read.

What I note about the Lukowski and Zawadzki work is its objectivity, particularly in examining the aspirations of other nations, namely the Lithuanians, Ruthenians (today's Ukrainians and Belarusians), whose respective fates were strongly linked to the fate of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the period following the wars of Polish succession and eventual partition. It also examines how the Duchy of Prussia was able to gradually break away from Polish rule as the Commonwealth declined. The rise and fall and the powerful re-emergence of the Polish Nation is well covered. For those who want to understand the Poland of today as an important member of NATO and the EU the Lukowski and Zawadzki tome is a good place to start.
A clear overview of Polish history for those interested in exploring this complex, fascinating, and colorful topic. Reading it prompted me to buy other, more detailed works on specific periods of Polish history. One other observation: this is the kind of survey that opens your mind to a subject and stays in your memory as the first time that something unfamiliar becomes part of your knowledge on the subject; i.e., I know that I'll be going back to Lukowski when I want a clear, lucid explanation for an aspect of Polish history.
This history has so many twists your head will be spinning. But it clearly summarizes the chaotic and exciting history of Poland, even when it was not a country. Great preparation for my recent trip to Poland.
Although I have an academic background, I knew very little about the complex history of Poland. I was a general reader, seeking an historical background for planned travels in Eastern Europe. I have learnt much from this book and I greatly appreciate the achievement of the authors in producing this concise but comprehensive coverage within 350 pages. However, much more could have been done to make the book more accessible and enjoyable for the general reader. For example, in each of the first two chapters the reader must wade through 40 pages of unrelenting text without the aid of a framework of sub-headings identifying any themes/directions/eras which could assist the reader. (A good example of how this could be achieved is the "Iron Kingdom - The Rise and Fall of Prussia" by Christopher Clark - Harvard University Press.)
The later chapters are more accessible and interesting and the book contains an excellent series of maps which do help with the reader's orientation.
Easy to read as it moves along fairly fast. It doesn't get bogged down in to many details so it worked well for me as a general overview.