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by George P. Marsh
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Economics
  • Author:
    George P. Marsh
  • ISBN:
    0405026773
  • ISBN13:
    978-0405026775
  • Genre:
  • Publisher:
    Ayer Co Pub (December 1, 1976)
  • Pages:
    656 pages
  • Subcategory:
    Economics
  • Language:
  • FB2 format
    1375 kb
  • ePUB format
    1499 kb
  • DJVU format
    1804 kb
  • Rating:
    4.3
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    732
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It was later expanded into The Earth as Modified by Human Action. The destruction of Old World civilizations had taken centuries, but Americans had all the latest technology, and their ability to ruin the land was far more efficient

It was later expanded into The Earth as Modified by Human Action. Minister to Italy, and while overseas, he visited the sites of many ancient civilizations. The destruction of Old World civilizations had taken centuries, but Americans had all the latest technology, and their ability to ruin the land was far more efficient. Loggers were busy harvesting lumber in the mountains of New York. Hunters were busy driving the passenger pigeons to extinction.

In 1864, George Perkins Marsh published Man and Nature, the book that . It was later expanded into The Earth as Modified by Human Action

In 1864, George Perkins Marsh published Man and Nature, the book that was the granddaddy of the modern ecology movement. It was later expanded into The Earth as Modified by Human Action. There were still vast numbers of passenger pigeons, which migrated in flocks so numerous that they were whole days in passing a given point.

George Perkins Marsh (March 15, 1801 – July 23, 1882), an American diplomat and philologist, is considered by some to be America's first environmentalist and by recognizing the irreversible impact of man's actions on the earth, a precursor.

George Perkins Marsh (March 15, 1801 – July 23, 1882), an American diplomat and philologist, is considered by some to be America's first environmentalist and by recognizing the irreversible impact of man's actions on the earth, a precursor to the sustainability concept, although "conservationist" would be more accurate. The feller National Historical Park in Vermont takes its name, in part, from Marsh. His 1864 book Man and Nature had a great impact in many parts of the world.

Man and Nature: Or, Physical Geography as Modified by Human Action, first published in 1864, was written by American polymath scholar and diplomat George Perkins Marsh. Marsh intended it to show that "whereas think the earth made man, man in fact made the earth". As a result, he warned that man could destroy himself and the Earth if we don't restore and sustain global resources and raise awareness about our actions

Marsh completed this science-focused treatise on man’s interaction with nature in 1864. In 1864, George Perkins Marsh published Man and Nature, the book that was the granddaddy of the modern ecology movement. This was a troubling and mind-expanding experience for him. Wandering through the realms of extinct civilizations, he realized that they were all victims of self-destruction.

The Earth As Modified by Human Action (American Environmental Studies). The Earth As Modified by Human Action (American Environmental Studies).

George Perkins Marsh. Библиографические данные. The Earth as Modified by Human Action. George Perkins Marsh. Издание: перепечатанное.

Marsh, George Perkins, 1801-1882. Uploaded by francescaive. SIMILAR ITEMS (based on metadata). Terms of Service (last updated 12/31/2014).

George Perkins Marsh, . Educated at Dartmouth College, Hanover, . Man and Nature, or Physical Geography as Modified by Human Action. diplomat, scholar, and conservationist whose greatest work, Man and Nature (1864), was one of the most significant advances in geography, ecology, and resource management of the 19th century. Additional Information.

This ebook presents The Earth as Modified by Human Action, from George Perkins . Books related to The Earth as Modified by Human Action. Environmental Problems of the Greeks and Romans.

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Kezan
In 1864, George Perkins Marsh published Man and Nature, the book that was the granddaddy of the modern ecology movement. It was later expanded into The Earth as Modified by Human Action. Marsh was the U.S. Minister to Italy, and while overseas, he visited the sites of many ancient civilizations. This was a troubling and mind-expanding experience for him.

Wandering through the realms of extinct civilizations, he realized that they were all victims of self-destruction. Marsh saw ancient seaports that were now 30 miles (48 km) from the sea. He saw ancient places where the old streets were buried beneath 30 feet (9 m) of eroded soil. He stood in mainland fields, 15 miles (24 km) from the sea, which used to be islands.

He saw the sites of ancient forests, formerly covered with three to six feet (1-2 m) of soil, where nothing but exposed rock remained. He learned that the removal of protective trees and vegetation led to the loss of topsoil. He learned that irrigation often led to salinization — the soil became so salty that it was rendered infertile.

There wasn’t much left of the formerly healthy ecosystems of the Mediterranean basin or the Fertile Crescent — places that once supported large thriving cities. With few exceptions, the modern population in these ravaged lands was far less than the population two thousand years ago. Most of the big ancient cities were either abandoned ghost towns, or desolate shadows of their former grandeur.

In the realm of the former Roman Empire, more than half of the lands were deserted, desolate, or greatly reduced in productivity. Forests were gone, much topsoil had been lost, springs had dried up, and rivers had shrunk into brooks. Fertile lowlands had become malarial swamps.

One unforgettable section in the book described in rich detail the arrival of farmers and herders in the French Alps. They had been driven into the mountains by population pressure. They whacked down the trees and then turned their livestock loose. The grazing animals stripped the land of all grass, and pulverized the scorched soil with their hooves.

Without forest or grass, the land could retain little water. When the wet season came, the water promptly ran off, taking the soil with it. Tiny creeks turned into roaring torrents, and entire fields and villages were suddenly washed away. Some places were reduced to bare bedrock wastelands.

For example: “The land slip, which overwhelmed, and covered to the depth of seventy feet, the town of Plurs in the valley of the Maira, on the night of the 4th of September, 1618, sparing not a soul of a population of 2,430 inhabitants, is one of the most memorable of these catastrophes, and the fall of the Rossberg or Rufiberg, which destroyed the little town of Goldau in Switzerland, and 450 of its people, on the 2nd of September, 1806, is almost equally celebrated.”

Marsh summed it up: “It is, in general, true, that the intervention of man has hitherto seemed to insure the final exhaustion, ruin, and desolation of every province of nature which he has reduced to his dominion. The instances are few, where a second civilization has flourished upon the ruins of an ancient culture, and lands once rendered uninhabitable by human acts or neglect have generally been forever abandoned as hopelessly irreclaimable.”

Marsh was from Vermont, where ambitious Americans were working furiously to replace forests with farms, and villages with industrial cities. There were still vast numbers of passenger pigeons, “which migrated in flocks so numerous that they were whole days in passing a given point.” He thought that farmers spurred their numbers by providing them with abundant grain to nibble on, and by waging genocide on their natural predators, the hawks. Farmers hated hawks because they often snatched their chickens without paying for them.

He was also amazed by the abundance of salt-water fish. “It does not seem probable that man, with all his rapacity and all his enginery, will succeed in totally extirpating any salt-water fish.” He could not foresee the arrival of industrial fishing, because he could not imagine human foolishness growing to such magnitude.

In Europe, he could observe the ruins of many civilizations, and note that this was how most experiments in agriculture ended. In America, he observed the same process in its infancy. Marsh was painfully aware that all of the worst mistakes made in the Old World were being imported to America, with similar effects.

The destruction of Old World civilizations had taken centuries, but Americans had all the latest technology, and their ability to ruin the land was far more efficient. Loggers were busy harvesting lumber in the mountains of New York. Hunters were busy driving the passenger pigeons to extinction. Farmers were destroying the vast healthy grasslands. It was not difficult to accurately predict the consequences of this madness.

The Western world was out of its mind with Perpetual Growth Fever, and everyone cheered for skyrocketing prosperity — nothing was more wonderful! The fever continues to rage today. Marsh lamented, “The fact that, of all organic beings, man alone is to be regarded as essentially a destructive power….” He realized that he was living in a world gone mad. He could very clearly see a horror show that the rest of society denied and disregarded.

Marsh was a brilliant outside-the-box thinker who was fully present in reality. He cared more about the vitality of the ecosystem than for temporary bursts of prosperity. He had a spiritual connection to life. He radiated intense common sense. He sincerely believed that it would be wise to learn from our mistakes, rather than endlessly repeat them. He thought that it would be wrong to remain on a path that would inevitably transform America into a wasteland.

In 2007, friends in California’s redwood country were hammered by floods. Loggers, who were working upstream, vigorously denied that the floods had anything whatsoever to do with their recent clear-cuts. It was a pure coincidence. Amazingly, the loggers were not seized by angry mobs and lynched for spewing such colossal lies. They got away with their crime because the education system has utterly failed to provide society with a competent understanding of ecology and sustainability.

Marsh did a decent job of providing readers with the ABC’s of ecology. Many years have passed since the first edition of Man and Nature was published. For the most part, his book has survived the test of time, and remains valid and important. But almost no high school (or university) graduates (or their instructors) would recognize Marsh’s name, or be able to intelligently discuss the history of logging, agriculture, topsoil destruction, and the fatal flaws of civilization — essential subjects that every citizen should understand in elementary school.
Rrd
Climate change is not new. The idea that man is as responsible as Mother Nature for changes to our planet is not new. This book was written in the 1800's with the same concern over carbon and water quality that we have today. Sadly we do not seem to want to improve our part in all this. We have no control over Mother Nature's actions. There is too much detail for the average reader. Lots of footnotes imbedded in the text. Good for those interested in the industry, but maybe too much for others. Good explanations of why this all matters and how much of it can't be avoided, but could and should be much better managed by man.
Invissibale
Written in the late 19th century and goes into much detail (very, very much detail) about man's influence on the environment and the disasters produced by his actions.